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Newyork Konvansiyonu

 

Yabancı Hakem Kararlarının Tanınması ve İcrası Hakkındaki New York Sözleşmesinin Onaylanmasının Uygun Bulunduğuna Dair Kanun

(Resmî Gazete ile yayımı : 21.5.1991 Sayı : 20877)

Kanun No. , Kabul Tarihi 3731 8.5.1991

MADDE 1. — 10 Haziran 1958 tarihli Yabancı Hakem Kararlarının Tanınması ve terası Hakkındaki New York Sözleşmesinin, ikinci maddedeki beyanın yapılması suretiyle, onaylan­ması uygun bulunmuştur.

MADDE 2. — Türkiye Cumhuriyeti, sözleşmenin 1 inci maddesinin 3 üncü paragrafına uygun olarak, sözleşmeyi sadece karşılıklılık esasına göre bu sözleşmeye taraf olan bir devlet ülkesinde verilmiş olan hakem kararlarının tanınması ve tenfizi hakkında uygulayacağını; ayrı­ ca sözleşmeyi yalnız akdi veya âkit dışı hukukî münasebetlerden kaynaklanan ve kendi iç hu­ kukuna göre ticarî mahiyette sayılan uyuşmazlıklar hakkında uygulayacağını beyan eder.

MADDE 3. — Bu Kanun yayımı tarihinde yürürlüğe girer. MADDE 4. — Bu Kanun hükümlerini Bakanlar Kurulu yürütür.

YABANCI HAKEM KARARLARININ TANINMASI VE İCRASI İÇİN SÖZLEŞME I. Madde

1. Bu sözleşme gerçek veya tüzel kişiler arasında doğan uyuşmazlıklarda, tanınması ve icrası istenen devletten başka bir devlet toprağında verilen hakem kararlarının tanınmasına ve icrasına uygulanır. Sözleşme aynı zamanda tanınması ve icrası istenen devlette millî sayılma­ yan hakem kararları hakkında da uygulanır.

2. "Hakem kararı" terimi ile sadece belli meselelerin çözülmesi için tayin olunan ha­ kemlerin değil aynı zamanda tarafların başvurdukları daimi hakemlik organlarının da verdik­ leri kararlar anlaşılır.

3. İşbu sözleşmeyi imza veya onaylama, buna katılma veya sözleşme hükümlerini 10 un­ cu maddede yazılı yerlere teşmil ihbarı sırasında, her devlet, mütekabiliyet esası dairesinde, söz­ leşme hükümlerini sadece diğer bir Akit Devletin topraklarında verilen hakem kararlarının ta­ nınması ve icrasına uygulanacağını beyan edebilir. Bunun gibi her devlet sözleşmenin uygulan­ masını akdi ve akdi olmayan hukukî münasebetlerden doğan uyuşmazlıklar arasında kendi millî kanununa nazaran sadece ticari mahiyette sayılanlara hasredeceğini beyan edebilir.

II. Madde

1. Âkit devletlerden her biri, tarafların akte dayanan veya akdî olmayan, belli bir hukuk münasebetinden aralarında doğmuş veya ileride doğabilecek, hakemlik yolu ile halledilmesi mümkün bir konu ile ilgili uyuşmazlıkların tamamını veya bir kı'smını hakeme hallettirmek üzere birbirine karşı taahhüde girişmelerine dair yazılı anlaşmalarını muteber addeder.

3731

8.5. 1991

— 373 —

2. "Yazılı anlaşma" terimiyle karşılıklı olarak gönderilen mektup veya telgraflarda bu­ lunan veya taraflarca imzalanmış mukaveleler içine konan hakem şartı veya bir hakem muka­ velesi anlaşılır.

3. Bir Âkit Devlet mahkemesi, tarafların, işbu maddenin anladığı manada anlaşma ak­ dettikleri bir konu ile ilgili uyuşmazlıklarına el koyduğu takdirde, anlaşmanın hükümden düş­ müş, tesirsiz veya tatbiki imkânsız bir halde olduğunu tespit etmedikçe, bunları, birinin talebi üzerine, hakemliğe sevkeder.

III. Madde

Âkit devletlerden her biri hakem kararlarının muteberliğini tanıyacak ve bunların öne sü­ rüldüğü memlekette yürürlükte olan usul kaideleri gereğince aşağıdaki maddelerde yazılı şart­ lar dairesinde icrasını temin edecektir, tşbu sözleşmenin şümulü içine giren hakem kararlarının tanınması ve icrası için millî hakem kararlarınınkine nisbetle ne oldukça daha ağır şartlar yük­ lenecek ne de daha yüksek adlî harçlar alınacaktır.

IV. Madde

1. Bundan önceki maddede zikri geçen tanıma ve icranın temini için, tanıma ve icra ka­ rarı verilmesini isteyen tarafın, bu husustaki isteği ile beraber aşağıdaki belgeleri de getirmesi icabeder:

a) Hakem kararının usulüne göre tasdik edilmiş aslını yahut da aslına uygunluğunu göste­ ren şartları ihtiva eden bir suretini,

b) II. madde hükmünde zikri geçen hakem anlaşmasının aslını veya aslına uygunluğunu gösteren şartları ihtiva eden bir suretini.

2. Eğer zikri geçen karar veya zikri geçen hakem anlaşması ileri sürüldüğü memleketin resmî bir dilinde yazılmamış bulunursa, hükmün tanınması ve icrasını isteyen tarafın, bu bel­ gelerin zikri geçen dile çevrilmiş bir tercümesini ibraz etmesi lazımdır. Tercümenin resmî veya yeminli bir tercüman yahut da diplomatik veya konsolosluk ajanı tarafından onanması şartUr.

V. Madde

1. Aleyhine hakem kararı ileri sürülen taraf talepte bulunmaz ve zikri geçen kararın ta­ nınması ve icrası istenen memleketin yetkili makamı önünde aşağıdaki hususları ispat etmez ise, hakem kararının tanınması ve icrası isteği reddolunamaz:

(a) II. maddede derpiş olunan anlaşmayı akdeden tarafların haklarında tatbiki gereken kanuna göre ehliyetsiz olduğu, yahut da zikri geçen anlaşmanın taraflarca tabi kılındığı kanu­ na ve eğer bu babta sarahat mevcut değilse hakem kararının verildiği yer kanununa göre hü­ kümsüz bulunduğu; veya

(b) Aleyhine hakem hükmü öne sürülen tarafın hakemin tayininden veya hakemlik prose­ düründen usulü dairesinde haberdar edilmemiş olduğu, yahut da diğer bir sebep yüzünden id­ dia ve müdafâa vasıtalarını ikame etmek, imkânını elde edememiş bulunduğu; veya

(c) Hakem karasının hakem mukavelesinde veya hakem şartında derpiş edilmiyen bir uyuş­ mazlığa ilişkin olduğu yahut hakem mukavelesi veya hakem şartının şümulünü aşan hü-

— 374 —

3731 8.5.1991

kümleri muhtevi bulunduğu; bununla beraber hakem kararının hakemliğe tabi bulunan mese­ leler hakkındaki hükümleri bunun dışında kalan hükümlerinden ayırt edebilecek durumda ise bunların tanınması ve icrası cihetine gidilebilir; yahut

(d) Hakem mahkemesinin teşekkülünün veya hakemlik usulünün tarafların anlaşmasına ve anlaşma olmayan hallerde hakemliğin cereyan ettiği yer kanunu hükümlerine uygun bulun­ madığı; veya

(e) Hakem kararının taraflar için henüz mecburî olmadığı veya, bunun, verildiği memle­ ket kanunu yahut tabi olduğu kanun yönünden yetkili bir makam tarafından iptal veya hük­ münün icrasının geri bırakılmış bulunduğu.

2. Hakem kararının tanınması ve icrası istenen memleketin yetkili makamı tarafından aşağıdaki hallerin bulunduğu görülecek olursa, tanıma ve icra isteği kezalik reddolunabilir: (a) Tanıma ve icra isteğinin öne sürüldüğü memleketin kanununa göre uyuşmazlık konu­

sunun hakemlik yolu ile halle elverişli bulunmaması; veya
(b) Hakem kararının tanınması ve icrasının zikri geçen memleketin amme intizamı kaide­

lerine aykırı olması.

VI. Madde
V. Maddenin 1, e, bendinde derpiş edilen yetkili makamdan, hakem kararının iptali veya

icrasının geri bırakılması istendiği takdirde, huzurunda hakem kararı öne sürülen makam uy­ gun görürse, bunun icrası hükmünün verilmesini ileriye bırakabilir; ve kezalik, kararın icrasını isteyen tarafın talebi üzerine karşı tarafı uygun teminat verilmesiyle ödevli kılabilir.

VII. Madde

1. tşbu sözleşme hükümleri, âkit devletler arasında akdedilmiş hakem kararlarının ta­ nınması veya icrasına dair, iki yahut çok taraflı sözleşmelerin muteberliğihe halel getirmez ye ilgili taraflardan hiçbirini, bir hakem kararından, bunun dermeyan edildiği memleketin kanun ve sözleşmeleri hükümleri dairesinde faydalanmak imkânından mahrum kılmaz.

2. Hakemlik şartlarına dair 1923 tarihli Cenevre protokolü ile yabana hakem kararları­ nın icrasına dair 1927 tarihli Cenevre Sözleşmesi, âkit devletler işbu sözleşme gereğince birbiri­ ne karşı bağlandıkları andan itibaren ve bağlılıkları nispetinde, yürürlüklerini kaybederler.

VIII. Madde

1. tşbu sözleşme, 31 Aralık 1958 tarihine kadar, Birleşmiş Milletler üyesi olan yahut bir­ leşmiş Milletlerin bir veya birden fazla mütehassıs müessesesinin üyesi olan veya ileride olacak olan, yahut Milletlerarası Adalet Divanı statüsünde taraf olan veya Birleşmiş Milletler Genel Kurulunun davet ettiği diğer her devletin imzasına açık bulundurulacaktır.

2. tşbu sözleşmenin onaylanması ve onama belgelerinin Birleşmiş Milletler Teşkilâtının Genel Sekreterliğine tevdi edilmesi gerekir;

IX. Madde

  1. VIII maddede derpiş edilen bütün devletler işbu sözleşmeye katılabilirler.

  2. Katılma Birleşmiş Milletler Teşkilâtının Genel Sekreteri nezdine tevdi edilecek bir ka­

tılma belgesi ile yapılır.

— 375 —
3731 8.5. 1991

X. Madde

*

1. Her devlet bu sözleşmeyi imza, onaylanma veya buna katılma sırasında sözleşme hük­ münün, milletlerarası sahada temsil ettiği ülkelerin hepsine, birine veya bazılarına şâmil olaca­ ğını açıklayabilir. Bu açıklama sözleşmenin zikri geçen devlet hakkında yürürlük kazandığı andan itibaren hüküm ifade eder.

2. Bundan sonra bu mahiyetteki bütün teşmiller Birleşmiş Milletler teşkilâtının Genel Sekreterine yöneltilmiş bir tebliğ ile yapılacak ve bu, Genel Sekreter tebliğnameyi aldıktan 90 gün sonra yahut da eğer zikri geçen devlet hakkında sözleşme sonradan yürürlüğe giriyorsa bu son tarihten itibaren hüküm ifade edecektir.

3. Sözleşmenin imzası, onaylanması veya buna katılması tarihinde tatbik edilmediği ül­ kelerin durumuna gelince, ilgili devletlerden her biri, indelhace, ve anayasa mülahazaları ge­ rektiriyorsa bu ülkelerin hükümetlerinin muvafakatlerini de almak kaydıyla, sözleşme hükmü­ nü bu yerlere de teşmil için gerekli tedbirlerin alınması imkânlarını inceler.

XI. Madde

- 1. Aşağıdaki hükümler federatif olan veya basit olmayan devletler hakkında uygulanır:

(a) İşbu sözleşmedeki hükümler federal kuvvetin kanun yapma yetkisinin şümulü içine girdiği nispette Federal hükümetin vecibeleri, federatif olmayan âkit devjetlerinkinin aynıdır.

(b) işbu sözleşmenin federatif devleti teşkil eden federe devlet veya eyaletlerin her birinin kanun yapma yetkisine taalluk eden ve bunların federasyonun anayasa sistemi gereğince kanu­ nî tedbirler alınmasıyla ödevli bulunmadıkları hükümlerine gelince, federal hükümet, en ya­ kın bir zamanda bu hükümleri müsbet mütalaasiyle birlikte federe devlet veya eyaletlerin yet­ kili makamlarının bilgisine ulaştırmayı taahhüt eder.

(c) tşbu sözleşmede taraf olan bir federatif devlet, Birleşmiş Milletler teşkilâtının Genel Sekreteri vasıtasıyla kendisine ulaştırılacak olan âkit her hangi diğer bir devletin talebi üzeri­ ne, sözleşmenin şu veya bu hükmüne dair federasyonda ve onu teşkil eden birliklerde yürür­ lükte olan mevzuat ve tatbikat hakkında bir açıklama göndererek, bahis konusu hükmün mü­ essir hale gelmesi yolunda alınan teşrii veya diğer tedbirlerin vüs'at ve şümulünü tebliğ eder.

XII. Madde

1. tşbu sözleşme üçüncü onaylama veya katılma belgesinin tevdii tarihini takip eden dok­ sanıncı gün yürürlüğe girecektir.

2. Üçüncü onaylama veya katılma belgesinin tevdiinden sonra sözleşmeyi onaylayacak veya buna katılacak olan devletlerden her biri hakkında sözleşme, onaylama veya katılma bel­ gesinin tevdiini takip eden doksanıncı gün yürürlüğe girecektir.

XIII. Madde

1. Her Âkit Devlet bu sözleşmenin, Birleşmiş Milletler teşkilâtı Genel Sekreterine gön­ derilecek yazılı bir tebliğ ile feshini ihbar edebilir. Feshin ihbarı, Birleşmiş Milletler teşkilâtı Genel Sekreterine sonradan yapacağı tebliğ ile sözleşmenin, tebliğin Genel Sekreter tarafından alınması tarihinden bir sene sonra bahis konusu ülkede uygulanmasının sona ereceğini bildire­ bilir.

3731

8.5. 1991

— 376 —

3. tşbu sözleşme, feshi ihbarın hüküm ifade etmesinden evvel haklarında tanıma ve icra usulü başlamış bulunan hakem kararları hakkında uygulanmaya devam eder.

XIV. Madde

Bir Âkit Devlet, işbu sözleşme hükümlerini diğer bir âkit devlete karşı, ancak kendisinin uygulamakla yükümlü olduğu nisbette ileri sürülebilir.

XV. Madde

Birleşmiş Milletler Teşkilâtının Genel Sekreteri VIII. maddede derpiş edilen bütün devlet­ lere aşağıdaki hususları tebliğ eder:

(a) VIII. maddede derpiş edilen imza ve onaylamaları;
(b) IX. maddede derpiş edilen katılmaları;
(c) I. X ve XI maddelerde derpiş edilen açıklama ve tebliğleri;

* (d) XII. madde gereğince işbu sözleşmenin yürürlüğe girdiği tarihi; (e) XIII. maddede derpiş edilen feshi ihbar ve tebliğleri.

XVI. Madde

1. tngilizce, Çince, ispanyolca, Fransızca ve Rusça metinleri eşit olarak hüküm ifade eden işbu sözleşme, Birleşmiş Milletler Teşkilâtının arşivlerinde saklanır.

2. Birleşmiş Milletler Teşkilâtının Genel Sekreteri işbu sözleşmenin aslına uygunluğu onan­ mış bir suretini VIII. maddede derpiş edilen devletlere ulaştırır.

BU KANUNA AİT TUTANAKLAR Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi

Cilt Birleşim Sayfa

33 24 124
55 59 3
60 114 156:157,164,246:250

I - Gerekçeli 500 S. Sayılı Basmayazı Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisinin 114 üncü Birleşim tutanağına bağlıdır.

II - Bu Kanunu; Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisinin Adalet ve Dışişleri Komisyonları görüş­ müştür.

III - Esas No. : 1/633

Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York, 1958)

 

UNITED NATIONS

The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) is a subsidiary body of the General Assembly. It plays an important role in improving the legal framework for international trade by preparing international legislative texts for use by States in modernizing the law of international trade and non-legislative texts for use by commercial parties in negotiating transactions. UNCITRAL legislative texts address international sale of goods; international commercial dispute resolution, including both arbitration and conciliation; electronic commerce; insolvency, including cross-border insolvency; international transport of goods; international payments; procurement and infrastructure development; and security interests. Non-legislative texts include rules for conduct of arbitration and conciliation proceedings; notes on organizing and conducting arbitral proceedings; and legal guides on industrial construction contracts and countertrade.

Further information may be obtained from:

UNCITRAL secretariat, Vienna International Centre, P.O. Box 500, 1400 Vienna, Austria

Telephone: (+43-1) 26060-4060 Telefax: (+43-1) 26060-5813 Internet: www.uncitral.org E-mail: uncitral@uncitral.org

UNITED NATIONS COMMISSION ON INTERNATIONAL TRADE LAW

Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards (New York, 1958)

UNITED NATIONS New York, 2015

NOTE

Symbols of United Nations documents are composed of capital letters com- bined with figures. Mention of such a symbol indicates a reference to a United Nations document.

The publication reproduced here is a revised version in which part three of the original publication of 2009 has been removed.

Material in this publication may be freely quoted or reprinted, but acknowledgement is requested, together with a copy of the publication containing the quotation or reprint.

Contents
Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

Part one. United Nations Conference on International Commercial Arbitration, New York, 20 May–10 June 1958. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Excerpts. from. the. Final. Act. of. the. United. Nations. Conference. on. . International.Commercial.Arbitration. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

Convention. on. the. Recognition. and. Enforcement. of. Foreign. Arbitral. . Awards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Part two. Recommendation regarding the interpretation of article II, paragraph 2, and article VII, paragraph 1, of the Convention
on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral
Awards. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

General. Assembly. resolution. 61/33. of. 4. December. 2006 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Recommendation. regarding. the. interpretation. of. article. II,. paragraph. 2,. . and. article. VII,. paragraph. 1,. of. the. Convention. on. the. Recognition. and. Enforcement. of. Foreign. Arbitral. Awards,. done. in. New.York,. 10. June. . 1958,. adopted. by. the. United. Nations. Commission. on. International. . Trade.Law.on.7.July.2006.at.its.thirty-ninth.session. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

iii

Page

Introduction

Objectives

Recognizing. the. growing. importance. of. international. arbitration. as. a. means. of. settling. international. commercial. disputes,. the. Convention. on. the. Recog- nition. and. Enforcement. of. Foreign. Arbitral. Awards. (the. Convention). seeks. to. provide. common. legislative. standards. for. the. recognition. of. arbitration. agreements. and. court. recognition. and. enforcement. of. foreign. and. non-. domestic. arbitral. awards .. The. term. “non-domestic”. appears. to. embrace. awards. which,. although. made. in. the. state. of. enforcement,. are. treated. as. “foreign”.under.its.law.because.of.some.foreign.element.in.the.proceedings,. e .g .. another. State’s. procedural. laws. are. applied .

The. Convention’s. principal. aim. is. that. foreign. and. non-domestic. arbitral. awards. will. not. be. discriminated. against. and. it. obliges. Parties. to. ensure. such. awards. are. recognized. and. generally. capable. of. enforcement. in. their. jurisdiction. in. the. same. way. as. domestic. awards .. An. ancillary. aim. of. the. Convention. is. to. require. courts. of. Parties. to. give. full. effect. to. arbitration. agreements. by. requiring. courts. to. deny. the. parties. access. to. court. in. con- travention. of. their. agreement. to. refer. the. matter. to. an. arbitral. tribunal .

Key provisions

The. Convention. applies. to. awards. made. in. any. State. other. than. the. State. in. which. recognition. and. enforcement. is. sought .. It. also. applies. to. awards. “not. considered. as. domestic. awards” .. When. consenting. to. be. bound. by. the. Convention,. a. State. may. declare. that. it. will. apply. the. Convention. (a). in. respect. to. awards. made. only. in. the. territory. of. another. Party. and. (b). only. to. legal. relationships. that. are. considered. “commercial”. under. its. domestic. law .

The. Convention. contains. provisions. on. arbitration. agreements .. This. aspect. was. covered. in. recognition. of. the. fact. that. an. award. could. be. refused. enforcement. on. the. grounds. that. the. agreement. upon. which. it. was. based. might. not. be. recognized .. Article. II. (1). provides. that. Parties. shall. recognize.

1

written. arbitration. agreements .. In. that. respect,. UNCITRAL. adopted,. at. its. thirty-ninth. session. in. 2006,. a. Recommendation. that. seeks. to. provide. guidance. to. Parties. on. the. interpretation. of. the. requirement. in. article. II. (2). that. an. arbitration. agreement.be.in.writing.and.to.encourage.application.of.article.VII.(1).to.allow.any. interested. party. to. avail. itself. of. rights. it. may. have,. under. the. law. or. treaties. of. the. country. where. an. arbitration. agreement. is. sought. to. be. relied. upon,. to. seek. recognition. of. the. validity. of. such. an. arbitration. agreement ..

The. central. obligation. imposed. upon. Parties. is. to. recognize. all. arbitral. awards. within. the. scheme. as. binding. and. enforce. them,. if. requested. to. do. so,. under. the. lex. fori .. Each. Party. may. determine. the. procedural. mechanisms. that. may. be. followed. where. the. Convention. does. not. prescribe. any. requirement .

The. Convention. defines. five. grounds. upon. which. recognition. and. enforce- ment.may.be.refused.at.the.request.of.the.party.against.whom.it.is.invoked .. The. grounds. include. incapacity. of. the. parties,. invalidity. of. the. arbitration. agreement,. due. process,. scope. of. the. arbitration. agreement,. jurisdiction. of. the. arbitral. tribunal,. setting. aside. or. suspension. of. an. award. in. the. country. in.which,.or.under.the.law.of.which,.that.award.was.made ..The.Convention. defines. two. additional. grounds. upon. which. the. court. may,. on. its. own. motion,. refuse. recognition. and. enforcement. of. an. award .. Those. grounds. relate. to. arbitrability. and. public. policy .

The. Convention. seeks. to. encourage. recognition. and. enforcement. of. awards. in.the.greatest.number.of.cases.as.possible ..That.purpose.is.achieved.through. article. VII. (1). of. the. Convention. by. removing. conditions. for. recognition. and. enforcement. in. national. laws. that. are. more. stringent. than. the. conditions. in. the. Convention,. while. allowing. the. continued. application. of. any. national. provisions. that. give. special. or. more. favourable. rights. to. a. party. seeking. to. enforce. an. award .. That. article. recognizes. the. right. of. any. interested. party. to. avail. itself. of. law. or. treaties. of. the. country. where. the. award. is. sought. to. be. relied. upon,. including. where. such. law. or. treaties. offer. a. regime. more. favourable. than. the. Convention .

Entry into force

The. Convention. entered. into. force. on. 7. June. 1959. (article. XII) .

How to become a party

The. Convention. is. closed. for. signature .. It. is. subject. to. ratification,. and. is. open. to. accession. by. any. Member. State. of. the. United. Nations,. any. other.

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State. which. is. a. member. of. any. specialized. agency. of. the. United. Nations,. or.is.a.Party.to.the.Statute.of.the.International.Court.of.Justice.(articles.VIII. and. IX) .

Optional and/or mandatory declarations and notifications

When. signing,. ratifying. or. acceding. to. the. Convention,. or. notifying. a. terri- torial. extension. under. article. X,. any. State. may. on. the. basis. of. reciprocity. declare.that.it.will.apply.the.Convention.to.the.recognition.and.enforcement. of. awards. made. only. in. the. territory. of. another. Party. to. the. Convention .. It. may.also.declare.that.it.will.apply.the.Convention.only.to.differences.arising. out. of. legal. relationships,. whether. contractual. or. not,. which. are. considered. as. commercial. under. the. national. law. of. the. State. making. such. declaration. (article. I) .

Denunciation/Withdrawal

Any. Party. may. denounce. this. Convention. by. a. written. notification. to. the. Secretary-General. of. the. United. Nations .. Denunciation. shall. take. effect. one. year.after.the.date.of.the.receipt.of.the.notification.by.the.Secretary-General. (article. XIII) .

3

Part one

UNITED. NATIoNS. CoNFERENCE. oN. INTERNATIoNAL. . CoMMERCIAL. ARbITRATIoN,. .

NEW.YoRk,. 20. MAY–10. JUNE. 1958

Excerpts from the Final Act of the United Nations Conference on International Commercial Arbitration1

“1 .. The.Economic.and.Social.Council.of.the.United.Nations,.by.resolution. 604. (XXI). adopted. on. 3. May. 1956,. decided. to. convene. a. Conference. of. Plenipotentiaries.for.the.purpose.of.concluding.a.convention.on.the.recogni- tion. and. enforcement. of. foreign. arbitral. awards,. and. to. consider. other. pos- sible.measures.for.increasing.the.effectiveness.of.arbitration.in.the.settlement. of. private. law. disputes ..

[...].

“12 .. The. Economic. and. Social. Council,. by. its. resolution. convening. the. Conference,. requested. it. to. conclude. a. convention. on. the. basis. of. the. draft. convention. prepared. by. the. Committee. on. the. Enforcement. of. International. Arbitral. Awards,. taking. into. account. the. comments. and. suggestions. made. by. Governments. and. non-governmental. organizations,. as. well. as. the. discussion. at. the. twenty-first. session. of. the. Council .

“13 .. on. the. basis. of. the. deliberations,. as. recorded. in. the. reports. of. the. work- ing. parties. and. in. the. records. of. the. plenary. meetings,. the. Conference. prepared. and. opened. for. signature. the. Convention. on. the. Recognition. and. Enforcement. of. Foreign. Arbitral. Awards. which. is. annexed. to. this. Final. Act .

[...]

“16 .. In. addition. the. Conference. adopted,. on. the. basis. of. proposals. made. by.the.Committee.on.other.Measures.as.recorded.in.its.report,.the.following. resolution:

. 1The. full. text. of. the. Final. Act. of. the. United. Nations. Conference. on. International. Commercial. Arbitration. (E/CoNF .26/8Rev .1). is. available. at. http://www .uncitral .org

5

. “The Conference,

. “Believing that,.in.addition.to.the.convention.on.the.recognition.and. enforcement. of. foreign. arbitral. awards. just. concluded,. which. would. contri- bute. to. increasing. the. effectiveness. of. arbitration. in. the. settlement. of. private. law. disputes,. additional. measures. should. be. taken. in. this. field,

. “Having considered the.able.survey.and.analysis.of.possible.measures. for.increasing.the.effectiveness.of.arbitration.in.the.settlement.of.private.law. disputes.prepared.by.the.Secretary-General.(document.E/CoNF .26/6),

. “Having given particular attention to.the.suggestions.made.therein.for. possible.ways.in.which.interested.governmental.and.other.organizations.may. make. practical. contributions. to. the. more. effective. use. of. arbitration,

. “Expresses the following views with. respect. to. the. principal. matters. dealt. with. in. the. note. of. the. Secretary-General:

. “1 .. It.considers.that.wider.diffusion.of.information.on.arbitration.laws,. practices. and. facilities. contributes. materially. to. progress. in. commercial. arbitration;. recognizes. that. work. has. already. been. done. in. this. field. by. interested. organizations,2. and. expresses. the. wish. that. such. organizations,. so. far. as. they. have. not. concluded. them,. continue. their. activities. in. this. regard,. with. particular. attention. to. coordinating. their. respective. efforts;

. “2 .. It.recognizes.the.desirability.of.encouraging.where.necessary.the. establishment. of. new. arbitration. facilities. and. the. improvement. of. existing. facilities,.particularly.in.some.geographic.regions.and.branches.of.trade;.and. believes. that. useful. work. may. be. done. in. this. field. by. appropriate. govern- mental. and. other. organizations,. which. may. be. active. in. arbitration. matters,. due. regard. being. given. to. the. need. to. avoid. duplication. of. effort. and. to. concentrate. upon. those. measures. of. greatest. practical. benefit. to. the. regions. and. branches. of. trade. concerned;

. “3 .. It.recognizes.the.value.of.technical.assistance.in.the.development. of. effective. arbitral. legislation. and. institutions;. and. suggests. that. interested. Governments. and. other. organizations. endeavour. to. furnish. such. assistance,. within. the. means. available,. to. those. seeking. it;

. “4 .. It. recognizes. that. regional. study. groups,. seminars. or. working. parties. may. in. appropriate. circumstances. have. productive. results;. believes. that. consideration. should. be. given. to. the. advisability. of. the. convening. of.

. 2For. example,. the. Economic. Commission. for. Europe. and. the. Inter-American. Council. of. Jurists .

6

such. meetings. by. the. appropriate. regional. commissions. of. the. United. Nations. and. other. bodies,. but. regards. it. as. important. that. any. such. action. be. taken. with. careful. regard. to. avoiding. duplication. and. assuring. economy. of. effort. and. of. resources;

. “5 .. It.considers.that.greater.uniformity.of.national.laws.on.arbitration. would.further.the.effectiveness.of.arbitration.in.the.settlement.of.private.law. disputes,. notes. the. work. already. done. in. this. field. by. various. existing. organizations,3. and. suggests. that. by. way. of. supplementing. the. efforts. of. these.bodies.appropriate.attention.be.given.to.defining.suitable.subject.matter. for.model.arbitration.statutes.and.other.appropriate.measures.for.encouraging. the. development. of. such. legislation;

. “Expresses the wish that. the. United. Nations,. through. its. appropriate. organs,. take. such. steps. as. it. deems. feasible. to. encourage. further. study. of. measures. for. increasing. the. effectiveness. of. arbitration. in. the. settlement. of. private. law. disputes. through. the. facilities. of. existing. regional. bodies. and. non-governmental. organizations. and. through. such. other. institutions. as. may. be. established. in. the. future;

. “Suggests that. any. such. steps. be. taken. in. a. manner. that. will. assure. proper. coordination. of. effort,. avoidance. of. duplication. and. due. observance. of. budgetary. considerations;

. “Requests that. the. Secretary-General. submit. this. resolution. to. the. appropriate. organs. of. the. United. Nations .”

. 3For.example,.the.International.Institute.for.the.Unification.of.Private.Law.and.the.Inter-American. Council. of. Jurists .

7

CoNVENTIoN. oN. ThE. RECoGNITIoN. AND. ENFoRCEMENT. . oF. FoREIGN. ARbITRAL. AWARDS

Article I

. 1 .. This.Convention.shall.apply.to.the.recognition.and.enforcement.of. arbitral. awards. made. in. the. territory. of. a. State. other. than. the. State. where. the. recognition. and. enforcement. of. such. awards. are. sought,. and. arising. out. of.differences.between.persons,.whether.physical.or.legal ..It.shall.also.apply. to. arbitral. awards. not. considered. as. domestic. awards. in. the. State. where. their. recognition. and. enforcement. are. sought ..

. 2 .. The. term. “arbitral. awards”. shall. include. not. only. awards. made. by. arbitrators.appointed.for.each.case.but.also.those.made.by.permanent.arbitral. bodies. to. which. the. parties. have. submitted ..

. 3 .. When. signing,. ratifying. or. acceding. to. this. Convention,. or. notifying. extension. under. article. X. hereof,. any. State. may. on. the. basis. of. reciprocity. declare. that. it. will. apply. the. Convention. to. the. recognition. and. enforcement. of. awards. made. only. in. the. territory. of. another. Contracting. State .. It. may. also. declare. that. it. will. apply. the. Convention. only. to. differences. arising. out. of. legal. relationships,. whether. contractual. or. not,. which. are. considered. as. commercial. under. the. national. law. of. the. State. making. such. declaration ..

Article II.

. 1 .. Each. Contracting. State. shall. recognize. an. agreement. in. writing. under. which. the. parties. undertake. to. submit. to. arbitration. all. or. any. differ- ences. which. have. arisen. or. which. may. arise. between. them. in. respect. of. a. defined. legal. relationship,. whether. contractual. or. not,. concerning. a. subject. matter. capable. of. settlement. by. arbitration ..

. 2 .. The. term. “agreement. in. writing”. shall. include. an. arbitral. clause. in.a.contract.or.an.arbitration.agreement,.signed.by.the.parties.or.contained. in. an. exchange. of. letters. or. telegrams ..

. 3 .. The. court. of. a. Contracting. State,. when. seized. of. an. action. in. a. matter. in. respect. of. which. the. parties. have. made. an. agreement. within. the. meaning. of. this. article,. shall,. at. the. request. of. one. of. the. parties,. refer. the. parties. to. arbitration,. unless. it. finds. that. the. said. agreement. is. null. and. void,. inoperative. or. incapable. of. being. performed ..

8

Article III

. Each. Contracting. State. shall. recognize. arbitral. awards. as. binding. and. enforce.them.in.accordance.with.the.rules.of.procedure.of.the.territory.where. the. award. is. relied. upon,. under. the. conditions. laid. down. in. the. following. articles .. There. shall. not. be. imposed. substantially. more. onerous. conditions. or.higher.fees.or.charges.on.the.recognition.or.enforcement.of.arbitral.awards. to. which. this. Convention. applies. than. are. imposed. on. the. recognition. or. enforcement. of. domestic. arbitral. awards ..

Article IV

. 1 .. To. obtain. the. recognition. and. enforcement. mentioned. in. the. pre- ceding. article,. the. party. applying. for. recognition. and. enforcement. shall,. at. the. time. of. the. application,. supply:.

. (a). The. duly. authenticated. original. award. or. a. duly. certified. copy. thereof;.

. (b). The.original.agreement.referred.to.in.article.II.or.a.duly.certified. copy. thereof ..

. 2 .. If. the. said. award. or. agreement. is. not. made. in. an. official. language. of. the. country. in. which. the. award. is. relied. upon,. the. party. applying. for. recognition.and.enforcement.of.the.award.shall.produce.a.translation.of.these. documents.into.such.language ..The.translation.shall.be.certified.by.an.official. or. sworn. translator. or. by. a. diplomatic. or. consular. agent ..

Article V

. 1 .. Recognition. and. enforcement. of. the. award. may. be. refused,. at. the. request. of. the. party. against. whom. it. is. invoked,. only. if. that. party. furnishes. to.the.competent.authority.where.the.recognition.and.enforcement.is.sought,. proof. that:.

. (a). The.parties.to.the.agreement.referred.to.in.article.II.were,.under. the. law. applicable. to. them,. under. some. incapacity,. or. the. said. agreement. is. not.valid.under.the.law.to.which.the.parties.have.subjected.it.or,.failing.any. indication.thereon,.under.the.law.of.the.country.where.the.award.was.made;. or.

. (b). The.party.against.whom.the.award.is.invoked.was.not.given.proper. notice. of. the. appointment. of. the. arbitrator. or. of. the. arbitration. proceedings. or. was. otherwise. unable. to. present. his. case;. or.

9

. (c). The. award. deals. with. a. difference. not. contemplated. by. or. not. falling.within.the.terms.of.the.submission.to.arbitration,.or.it.contains.deci- sions.on.matters.beyond.the.scope.of.the.submission.to.arbitration,.provided. that,. if. the. decisions. on. matters. submitted. to. arbitration. can. be. separated. from.those.not.so.submitted,.that.part.of.the.award.which.contains.decisions. on. matters. submitted. to. arbitration. may. be. recognized. and. enforced;. or.

. (d). The.composition.of.the.arbitral.authority.or.the.arbitral.procedure. was. not. in. accordance. with. the. agreement. of. the. parties,. or,. failing. such. agreement,. was. not. in. accordance. with. the. law. of. the. country. where. the. arbitration. took. place;. or.

. (e). The.award.has.not.yet.become.binding.on.the.parties,.or.has.been. set. aside. or. suspended. by. a. competent. authority. of. the. country. in. which,. or. under. the. law. of. which,. that. award. was. made ..

. 2 .. Recognition. and. enforcement. of. an. arbitral. award. may. also. be. refused. if. the. competent. authority. in. the. country. where. recognition. and. enforcement. is. sought. finds. that:.

. (a). The.subject.matter.of.the.difference.is.not.capable.of.settlement. by. arbitration. under. the. law. of. that. country;. or.

. (b). The.recognition.or.enforcement.of.the.award.would.be.contrary.to. the. public. policy. of. that. country ..

Article VI

. If. an. application. for. the. setting. aside. or. suspension. of. the. award. has. been. made. to. a. competent. authority. referred. to. in. article. V. (1). (e),. the. authority. before. which. the. award. is. sought. to. be. relied. upon. may,. if. it. considers. it. proper,. adjourn. the. decision. on. the. enforcement. of. the. award. and. may. also,. on. the. application. of. the. party. claiming. enforcement. of. the. award,. order. the. other. party. to. give. suitable. security ..

Article VII

. 1 .. The.provisions.of.the.present.Convention.shall.not.affect.the.valid- ity. of. multilateral. or. bilateral. agreements. concerning. the. recognition. and. enforcement. of. arbitral. awards. entered. into. by. the. Contracting. States. nor. deprive. any. interested. party. of. any. right. he. may. have. to. avail. himself. of. an. arbitral. award. in. the. manner. and. to. the. extent. allowed. by. the. law. or. the. treaties. of. the. country. where. such. award. is. sought. to. be. relied. upon ..

10

. 2 .. The. Geneva. Protocol. on. Arbitration. Clauses. of. 1923. and. the. Geneva. Convention. on. the. Execution. of. Foreign. Arbitral. Awards. of. 1927. shall. cease. to. have. effect. between. Contracting. States. on. their. becoming. bound. and. to. the. extent. that. they. become. bound,. by. this. Convention ..

Article VIII

. 1 .. This. Convention. shall. be. open. until. 31. December. 1958. for. signature. on.behalf.of.any.Member.of.the.United.Nations.and.also.on.behalf.of.any.other. State. which. is. or. hereafter. becomes. a. member. of. any. specialized. agency. of. the. United. Nations,. or. which. is. or. hereafter. becomes. a. party. to. the. Statute. of. the. International.Court.of.Justice,.or.any.other.State.to.which.an.invitation.has.been. addressed. by. the. General. Assembly. of. the. United. Nations ..

. 2 .. This. Convention. shall. be. ratified. and. the. instrument. of. ratification. shall. be. deposited. with. the. Secretary-General. of. the. United. Nations ..

Article IX

. 1 .. This. Convention. shall. be. open. for. accession. to. all. States. referred. to. in. article. VIII ..

. 2 .. Accession. shall. be. effected. by. the. deposit. of. an. instrument. of. accession. with. the. Secretary-General. of. the. United. Nations ..

Article X

. 1 .. Any. State. may,. at. the. time. of. signature,. ratification. or. accession,. declare. that. this. Convention. shall. extend. to. all. or. any. of. the. territories. for. the.international.relations.of.which.it.is.responsible ..Such.a.declaration.shall. take. effect. when. the. Convention. enters. into. force. for. the. State. concerned ..

. 2 .. At. any. time. thereafter. any. such. extension. shall. be. made. by. notifica- tion. addressed. to. the. Secretary-General. of. the. United. Nations. and. shall. take. effect.as.from.the.ninetieth.day.after.the.day.of.receipt.by.the.Secretary-General. of. the. United. Nations. of. this. notification,. or. as. from. the. date. of. entry. into. force. of. the. Convention. for. the. State. concerned,. whichever. is. the. later ..

. 3 .. With. respect. to. those. territories. to. which. this. Convention. is. not. extended. at. the. time. of. signature,. ratification. or. accession,. each. State. concerned.shall.consider.the.possibility.of.taking.the.necessary.steps.in.order.

11

to. extend. the. application. of. this. Convention. to. such. territories,. subject,. where. necessary. for. constitutional. reasons,. to. the. consent. of. the. Govern- ments. of. such. territories ..

Article XI

. In. the. case. of. a. federal. or. non-unitary. State,. the. following. provisions. shall. apply:.

. (a). With.respect.to.those.articles.of.this.Convention.that.come.within. the. legislative. jurisdiction. of. the. federal. authority,. the. obligations. of. the. federal. Government. shall. to. this. extent. be. the. same. as. those. of. Contracting. States. which. are. not. federal. States;.

. (b). With.respect.to.those.articles.of.this.Convention.that.come.within. the. legislative. jurisdiction. of. constituent. states. or. provinces. which. are. not,. under. the. constitutional. system. of. the. federation,. bound. to. take. legislative. action,. the. federal. Government. shall. bring. such. articles. with. a. favourable. recommendation. to. the. notice. of. the. appropriate. authorities. of. constituent. states. or. provinces. at. the. earliest. possible. moment;.

. (c). A.federal.State.Party.to.this.Convention.shall,.at.the.request.of. any.other.Contracting.State.transmitted.through.the.Secretary-General.of.the. United.Nations,.supply.a.statement.of.the.law.and.practice.of.the.federation. and.its.constituent.units.in.regard.to.any.particular.provision.of.this.Conven- tion,.showing.the.extent.to.which.effect.has.been.given.to.that.provision.by. legislative. or. other. action ..

Article XII

. 1 .. This.Convention.shall.come.into.force.on.the.ninetieth.day.follow- ing. the. date. of. deposit. of. the. third. instrument. of. ratification. or. accession ..

. 2 .. For. each. State. ratifying. or. acceding. to. this. Convention. after. the. deposit. of. the. third. instrument. of. ratification. or. accession,. this. Convention. shall. enter. into. force. on. the. ninetieth. day. after. deposit. by. such. State. of. its. instrument. of. ratification. or. accession ..

Article XIII

. 1 .. Any.Contracting.State.may.denounce.this.Convention.by.a.written. notification. to. the. Secretary-General. of. the. United. Nations .. Denunciation.

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shall. take. effect. one. year. after. the. date. of. receipt. of. the. notification. by. the. Secretary-General ..

. 2 .. Any. State. which. has. made. a. declaration. or. notification. under. article.X.may,.at.any.time.thereafter,.by.notification.to.the.Secretary-General. of. the. United. Nations,. declare. that. this. Convention. shall. cease. to. extend. to. the. territory. concerned. one. year. after. the. date. of. the. receipt. of. the. notifica- tion. by. the. Secretary-General ..

. 3 .. This. Convention. shall. continue. to. be. applicable. to. arbitral. awards. in. respect. of. which. recognition. or. enforcement. proceedings. have. been. instituted. before. the. denunciation. takes. effect ..

Article XIV

. A. Contracting. State. shall. not. be. entitled. to. avail. itself. of. the. present. Convention. against. other. Contracting. States. except. to. the. extent. that. it. is. itself. bound. to. apply. the. Convention ..

Article XV

. The. Secretary-General. of. the. United. Nations. shall. notify. the. States. contemplated. in. article. VIII. of. the. following:.

  • .  (a).

  • .  (b).

  • .  (c).

  • .  (e). Denunciations.and.notifications.in.accordance.with.article.XIII .. Article XVI

  • .  1 .. This. Convention,. of. which. the. Chinese,. English,. French,. Russian. and. Spanish. texts. shall. be. equally. authentic,. shall. be. deposited. in. the. archives. of. the. United. Nations ..

. 2 .. The. Secretary-General. of. the. United. Nations. shall. transmit. a. certi- fied. copy. of. this. Convention. to. the. States. contemplated. in. article. VIII ..

Signatures. and. ratifications. in. accordance. with. article. VIII;. Accessions. in. accordance. with. article. IX;.
Declarations. and. notifications. under. articles. I,. X. and. XI;.
The. date. upon. which. this. Convention. enters. into. force. in. accord-

. (d).
ance. with. article. XII;.

13

.

The General Assembly,
Recognizing the.value.of.arbitration.as.a.method.of.settling.disputes.

Part two

RECoMMENDATIoN. REGARDING. ThE. INTERPRETATIoN. . oF. ARTICLE.II,. PARAGRAPh.2,. AND. ARTICLE.VII,. . PARAGRAPh.1,. oF. ThE. CoNVENTIoN. oN. .
ThE. RECoGNITIoN. AND. ENFoRCEMENT. .

oF. FoREIGN. ARbITRAL. AWARDS

General Assembly resolution 61/33 of 4 December 2006

.
arising. in. the. context. of. international. commercial. relations,.

. Recalling its. resolution. 40/72. of. 11.December. 1985. regarding. the. Model. Law. on. International. Commercial. Arbitration,1

. Recognizing. the. need. for. provisions. in. the. Model. Law. to. conform. to. current. practices. in. international. trade. and. modern. means. of. contracting. with. regard. to. the. form. of. the. arbitration. agreement. and. the. granting. of. interim. measures,

. Believing. that. revised. articles. of. the. Model. Law. on. the. form. of. the. arbitration.agreement.and.interim.measures.reflecting.those.current.practices. will. significantly. enhance. the. operation. of. the. Model. Law,.

. Noting. that. the. preparation. of. the. revised. articles. of. the. Model. Law. on. the. form. of. the. arbitration. agreement. and. interim. measures. was. the. subject. of. due. deliberation. and. extensive. consultations. with. Governments. and. interested. circles. and. would. contribute. significantly. to. the. establishment. of. a. harmonized. legal. framework. for. a. fair. and. efficient. settlement. of. interna- tional. commercial. disputes,.

1Official Records of the General Assembly, Fortieth Session, Supplement No. 17. (A/40/17),. annex.I .

15

. Believing that,.in.connection.with.the.modernization.of.articles.of.the. Model. Law,. the. promotion. of. a. uniform. interpretation. and. application. of. the. Convention. on. the. Recognition. and. Enforcement. of. Foreign. Arbitral. Awards,. done. at. New.York,. 10.June. 1958,2. is. particularly. timely,

. 1 .. Expresses its appreciation to. the. United. Nations. Commission. on. International.Trade.Law.for.formulating.and.adopting.the.revised.articles.of. its. Model. Law. on. International. Commercial. Arbitration. on. the. form. of. the. arbitration. agreement. and. interim. measures,. the. text. of. which. is. contained. in. annex.I. to. the. report. of. the. United. Nations. Commission. on. International. Trade.Law.on.the.work.of.its.thirty-ninth.session,3.and.recommends.that.all. States. give. favourable. consideration. to. the. enactment. of. the. revised. articles. of. the. Model. Law,. or. the. revised. Model. Law. on. International. Commercial. Arbitration. of. the. United. Nations. Commission. on. International. Trade. Law,. when.they.enact.or.revise.their.laws,.in.view.of.the.desirability.of.uniformity. of. the. law. of. arbitral. procedures. and. the. specific. needs. of. international. commercial. arbitration. practice;

. 2 .. Also expresses its appreciation to.the.United.Nations.Commission. on. International. Trade. Law. for. formulating. and. adopting. the. recommenda- tion. regarding. the. interpretation. of. article.II,. paragraph.2,. and. article.VII,. paragraph.1,. of. the. Convention. on. the. Recognition. and. Enforcement. of. Foreign.Arbitral.Awards,.done.at.New.York,.10.June.1958,2.the.text.of.which. is. contained. in. annex.II. to. the. report. of. the. United. Nations. Commission. on. International. Trade. Law. on. the. work. of. its. thirty-ninth. session;3

. 3 .. Requests. the. Secretary-General. to. make. all. efforts. to. ensure. that. the. revised. articles. of. the. Model. Law. and. the. recommendation. become. generally. known. and. available .

64th plenary meeting 4 December 2006

  • .  2United.Nations,.Treaty Series,.vol ..330,.No ..4739 .

  • .  3Official Records of the General Assembly, Sixty-first Session, Supplement No. 17 (A/61/17) .. .

16

RECoMMENDATIoN. REGARDING. ThE. INTERPRETATIoN. oF. ARTICLE. II,. PARAGRAPh. 2,. AND. ARTICLE. VII,. PARAGRAPh. 1,. oF. .
ThE. CoNVENTIoN. oN. ThE. RECoGNITIoN. AND. ENFoRCEMENT. oF. .

.

FoREIGN. ARbITRAL. AWARDS,. DoNE. IN. NEW.YoRk,. 10. JUNE. 1958,. ADoPTED.bY.ThE.UNITED.NATIoNS.CoMMISSIoN.oN.. INTERNATIoNAL.TRADE.LAW.oN.7.JULY.2006..

AT. ITS. ThIRTY-NINTh. SESSIoN
The United Nations Commission on International Trade Law,

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which. established. the. United. Nations. Commission. on. International. Trade. Law. with. the. object. of. promoting. the. progressive. harmonization. and. unification. of. the.law.of.international.trade.by,.inter.alia,.promoting.ways.and.means.of.ensur- ing. a. uniform. interpretation. and. application. of. international. conventions. and. uniform. laws. in. the. field. of. the. law. of. international. trade,

. Conscious of. the. fact. that. the. different. legal,. social. and. economic. systems. of. the. world,. together. with. different. levels. of. development,. are. represented. in. the. Commission,

. Recalling. successive. resolutions. of. the. General. Assembly. reaffirming. the. mandate. of. the. Commission. as. the. core. legal. body. within. the. United. Nations. system. in. the. field. of. international. trade. law. to. coordinate. legal. activities. in. this. field,.

. Convinced.that.the.wide.adoption.of.the.Convention.on.the.Recognition. and.Enforcement.of.Foreign.Arbitral.Awards,.done.in.New.York.on.10.June. 1958,4. has. been. a. significant. achievement. in. the. promotion. of. the. rule. of. law,. particularly. in. the. field. of. international. trade,

. Recalling. that. the. Conference. of. Plenipotentiaries. which. prepared. and. opened.the.Convention.for.signature.adopted.a.resolution,.which.states,.inter. alia,. that. the. Conference. “considers. that. greater. uniformity. of. national. laws. on.arbitration.would.further.the.effectiveness.of.arbitration.in.the.settlement. of. private. law. disputes”,

. Bearing in mind differing.interpretations.of.the.form.requirements.under. the. Convention. that. result. in. part. from. differences. of. expression. as. between. the. five. equally. authentic. texts. of. the. Convention,

. Taking into account article. VII,. paragraph. 1,. of. the. Convention,. a. purpose. of. which. is. to. enable. the. enforcement. of. foreign. arbitral. awards. to.

Recalling General.Assembly.resolution.2205.(XXI).of.17.December.1966,.

. 4United.Nations,.Treaty Series,.vol ..330,.No ..4739 .

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the. greatest. extent,. in. particular. by. recognizing. the. right. of. any. interested. party. to. avail. itself. of. law. or. treaties. of. the. country. where. the. award. is. sought.to.be.relied.upon,.including.where.such.law.or.treaties.offer.a.regime. more. favourable. than. the. Convention,

  • .  Considering the.wide.use.of.electronic.commerce,

  • .  Taking into account international. legal. instruments,. such. as. the. 1985.UNCITRAL. Model. Law. on. International. Commercial. Arbitration,5. as. subsequently.revised,.particularly.with.respect.to.article.7,6.the.UNCITRAL. Model. Law. on. Electronic. Commerce,7. the. UNCITRAL. Model. Law. on. Electronic. Signatures8. and. the. United. Nations. Convention. on. the. Use. of. Electronic. Communications. in. International. Contracts,9.

. Taking into account also.enactments.of.domestic.legislation,.as.well.as. case. law,. more. favourable. than. the. Convention. in. respect. of. form. require- ment. governing. arbitration. agreements,. arbitration. proceedings. and. the. enforcement. of. arbitral. awards,

. Considering that,.in.interpreting.the.Convention,.regard.is.to.be.had.to. the. need. to. promote. recognition. and. enforcement. of. arbitral. awards,

. 1 .. Recommends. that. article. II,. paragraph. 2,. of. the. Convention. on. the. Recognition.and.Enforcement.of.Foreign.Arbitral.Awards,.done.in.New.York,. 10.June.1958,.be.applied.recognizing.that.the.circumstances.described.there- in. are. not. exhaustive;

. 2 .. Recommends also that.article.VII,.paragraph.1,.of.the.Convention. on. the. Recognition. and. Enforcement. of. Foreign. Arbitral. Awards,. done. in. New.York,. 10.June. 1958,. should. be. applied. to. allow. any. interested. party. to. avail. itself. of. rights. it. may. have,. under. the. law. or. treaties. of. the. country. where. an. arbitration. agreement. is. sought. to. be. relied. upon,. to. seek. recogni- tion. of. the. validity. of. such. an. arbitration. agreement .

. 5Official Records of the General Assembly, Fortieth Session, Supplement No. 17 (A/40/17),.annex.I,. and. United. Nations. publication,. Sales. No .. E .95 .V .18 .

  • .  6Ibid .,.Sixty-first Session, Supplement No. 17 (A/61/17),.annex.I .

  • .  7Ibid .,.Fifty-first Session,.Supplement No. 17 (A/51/17),.annex.I,.and.United.Nations.publication,. Sales.No ..E .99 .V .4,.which.contains.also.an.additional.article.5.bis,.adopted.in.1998,.and.the.accompany- ing. Guide. to. Enactment ..

. 8Ibid .,.Fifty-sixth Session, Supplement No. 17 and.corrigendum.(A/56/17.and.Corr .3),.annex.II,. and. United. Nations. publication,. Sales. No .. E .02 .V .8,. which. contains. also. the. accompanying. Guide. to. Enactment .
. 9General. Assembly. resolution. 60/21,. annex .

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